Bone is indeed a dynamic tissue, subjected to a continuous renewing during the life of each individual by the process of bone remodeling. Bone remodeling relies on the correct function of two principal cells of the bone tissue: the osteoclasts, multinucleated cells that destroy the bone matrix, and the osteoblasts, having osteogenic functions. Osteocytes are osteoblasts that have been incorporated into bone matrix and are cells with extensive dendritic processes through which the cells communicate with other osteocytes and with osteoblasts. A correct balance between bone resorption and osteogenic functions is mandatory to maintain bone strength and mineral homeostasis.
Most people will experience some form of musculoskeletal-related injury or disease during their lifetime. Musculoskeletal disorders are common problems affecting the elderly. Autologous bone grafting is today the gold standard for bone repair, however the costs of this approach are considerable due to the additional surgical procedures required to harvest the bone material, the consequent donor site morbidity, and the risk of infection and complications. Bone tissue engineering (BTE) is an alternative strategy that has been explored to fill the clinical need for autologous bone transplantation. The ex vivo expansion and manipulation of stromal cells derived from various sources form the foundation of the majority of current bone tissue engineering. Nevertheless, the downsides to autologous cell-based therapy are significant and can be prohibited in some cases, especially in the elderly and the ill.
Osteoporosis has been recognized as a systemic disease, which is characterized by the continuous loss of bone mass, affects millions of people worldwide. Patients with osteoporosis are at a higher risk of bone fractures. Current osteoporosis treatments are predominantly bone-resorbing drugs that are associated with several side effects. Stem cell therapy for osteoporosis could potentially reduce the susceptibility of fractures and augment lost mineral density by either increasing the numbers or restoring the function of resident stem cells that can proliferate and differentiate into bone-forming cells. However, the main hurdle with cell-based osteoporosis therapy is the uncertainty of stem cell fate and biodistribution following cell transplantation.
Considering the vary limitations and uncertainties of conventional autologous approach given above for bone repair, CBI firmly believes that allogenic bone cell sources made and controlled with GMP process is necessary and crucial for future therapeutic purpose and profitable commercial development.